Monday, September 19, 2011

Training for Disasters to Avoid Trial and Error in the Field

The following is an article written for Risk and Insurance Magazine.  I am reposting it in here at the request of a local business owner.  Although the focus of the article is written for municipalities, It contains information that is relivant to both personal and business preparedness.

By RICHARD HILDRETH, mayor of the city of Pacific, Wash.
By their very nature, disasters are a high-risk, low-probability event. Due to the infrequency of disasters and the multitude of issues that policyleaders face every day, it is not surprising that executives often push emergency preparedness to a back burner. However, executives have a special obligation to protect, serve and advance the interest of their constituents, and it is critical that they look seriously at these issues and prepare themselves and their jurisdictions.

This is true if we are talking about a city or we are talking about a business. How a leader copes with and prepares for a disaster demonstrates their managerial competence and their leadership. These are traits critical to winning and maintaining political office or managing a company. Proactive leadership sets the compass point for others to follow and promotes a culture of preparedness in others.

How can executives prepare their jurisdictions? Where can they gain the skills needed to understand the risks they may face and the cascading effects those risks might trigger? I speak from the standpoint of an elected official, but many of these same steps can also be translated to the private sector. The key is to begin the thought process of preparedness.

The process for determining risk in emergency management is very similar to the processes used in determining exposures and vulnerabilities in risk management. That means balancing an overall threat with the likelihood of occurrence and then looking at the entity's ability to mitigate or reduce those risks.
If I prepare for dealing with a large scale event such as an earthquake or hurricane, I will also be prepared to deal with smaller issues such as a power or communications failure. The first step is understanding where there are vulnerabilities.
What would happen if your jurisdiction were to be impacted by a disaster? How quickly could you resume a minimal level of service? How might the ability of others to recover alter your recovery plans? These are issues we need to think about.
An example of this process of critical thinking is a meeting I had last spring with staff. I directed everyone to think about how a breakout of the H1N1 virus might impact their department. The following week, the typical answer was that they would need to deal with short staffing issues and certain people calling in sick.
My community services director came back with a different answer that showed she really understood the importance of the issue. She pointed out that our senior nutrition program was provided by Catholic Community Services. It was their policy that, if an outbreak of H1N1 occurred in an area, they would suspend food programs inside of a two-mile radius around that outbreak. If Auburn School District cancelled classes, as many districts around the country that were affected by the outbreak did, there would be no senior nutrition program in our city, impacting 65 vulnerable adults. Additionally, if social distancing measures were needed to halt an outbreak, we would also have the need to get those nutrition services out to the seniors impacted.
Inside of that week, the community services director had looked at what could happen, what impact it might have on her programs and developed a plan to mitigate the problem. She contracted with the Meals on Wheels program to temporarily expand services during an outbreak and proposed that we would use our volunteers to deliver the additional meals. It is a small example, but it does show that critical thinking that can help reduce the impact of disaster on a community or business.
Next, let's look at policy decisions during times of emergency, the importance of their timing and the legal ramifications of poor choices. This is where that critical thinking pays off. Although we do not want to scare policymakers into not taking action, it is important that we do stress the thought process that must be done to justify decisions.
There are basic skills that must be developed. Clear, methodical and informed decision-making can limit damage as well as exposure and are important parts of an overall planning process. With time, the impacts of a disaster may fade from memory, but how long do we remember the wrong decision that made the disaster worse? Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that point very clearly on many different levels.
For public employees, including elected officials, there are many great options that can help develop the skills needed. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) offers both field-delivered training as well as resident training through the Emergency Management Institute (EMI) located in Emmitsburg, Md., and the Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) in Anniston, Ala.
The CDP is also a member of a distinct group of educational and preparedness organizations called the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium. Most of these programs are funded by the Department of Homeland Security or are subsidized by grants, so they can be offered at little or no cost to the participant or jurisdiction. Many of these classes combine classroom work with role-playing exercise so the student directly learns how to apply learned skills in a disaster.
The Integrated Emergency Management Course (IEMC) series at EMI is a prime example. This series of courses, usually taught at the EMI campus in Maryland, is usually attended by 50 to 70 students from various disciplines. Typically, students fly in to the Washington, D.C., area on a Sunday and are bused to the National Emergency Training Center (NETC) campus by FEMA. The NETC is on the site of the former Saint Joseph College and now houses EMI and the National Fire Academy. Classes start Monday morning and consist of lectures, classroom discussion and short exercises. Students are then assigned a position similar to their professional position and exercise in the EMI's simulated Emergency Operations Center. Classes provide a combination of training techniques each day and culminate with a daylong exercise on Thursday.
This is great training for very little cost. Many other emergency management and preparedness courses are offered at EMI or field delivered. More information including course schedules and information can be accessed at
The Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP)in Anniston, Ala., operates similarly and fully funds all training for state, local and tribal response personnel--including travel, meals and lodging. With more of a Homeland Security focus, the CDP's classes are usually centered on terrorism, civil unrest and weapons of mass destruction. These classes too combine classroom curriculum with exercise and simulations.
The CDP is also home to the COBRA (Chemical Ordinance Biological and Radiological) training facility, where students can suit up and operate in a live chemical agent environment. COBRA is the only training site in America where civilians can truly experience operating in a contaminated environment.
Also housed within the CDP is the Noble Training Facility, the only full-scale hospital facility in the United States dedicated to training hospital and healthcare professionals in disaster preparedness and response.
Overall, the CDP's training courses promote greater understanding among the following diverse responder disciplines: emergency management, emergency medical services, fire service, governmental administrative, hazardous materials, healthcare, law enforcement, public health, public safety communications and public works. Like EMI, CDP training is offered at little to no cost to the student or jurisdiction. Information on courses at the CDP can be found at
These facilities can provide a great deal of training at a very low cost. They have provided me with a greater understanding of emergency management and homeland security issues. They have also allowed me to learn what I realistically might face as a policyleader when a disaster happens and how I can appropriately respond.
A recent class I took at the CDP on incident command for weapons of mass destruction, which included some hands-on training, has given me a greater understanding of how difficult it is to work in a contaminated environment. With this new perspective, I now understand how critical this type of planning and response can be.
Yes, this training does take time out of a busy schedule. To attend, I often have to make compromises to fit the classes in. But I look at it this way: When a disaster occurs, my constituents deserve someone who understands the issues and is prepared to act accordingly. I have found that both the training and what has been developed as a result have been a worthwhile investment of my time. I would much rather learn these skills in the classroom than by trial and error in the field.

City of Pacific CEMP - Basic Plan

Note: The following is the City of Pacific Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan Core Document - This document provides the framework for emergency managment planning, response and recovery.  Additional documents have been added since this document was written and together they make up the CEMP.  Information that is relevant to Citizens needs will be published on this blog in additional postings.  I appologize if the format of this blog does not allow direct translation of the document onto this screen.

Adopted January 26, 2010

Information contained in this document maybe Law Enforcement,
 Emergency Management or Homeland Security Sensitive.
Do not distribute complete document without prior
authorization and documentation of that distribution.
A Public Version of this document may be maintained for public use.

The City of Pacific Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

Letter of Promulgation

By action of the City Council of the City of Pacific Washington, this Comprehensive Emergency Operations Plan, its annexes and attachments are hereby set in place as the legally authorized emergency operations plan for the City of Pacific.  This plan was originally adopted on May 25, 2009 and is to be reviewed and re-adopted following each municipal election. This re-adoption was most recently passed by Ordinance # ___________ and is concurrent with PMC 2.76.010


This plan is developed under the following Local, State and Federal Laws, Statutes and Regulations:

Homeland Security Presidential Directive #5 (HPSD-5)
Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HPSD-8)
Public Law 93-288, The Disaster Relief Act of 1974, as amended
Public Law 920, Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended
Public Law 96-342, Improved Civil Defense Act of 1980
Revised Code of Washington 35.33.081
Revised Code of Washington 35.33.101
Revised Code of Washington 38.52.070
Washington Administrative Code 118-030
Washington Administrative Code 296 -62-3112
Pacific Municipal Code 2.76
Pacific Ordinance 1621 (September 14, 2005)
Part One - Introduction

A.      It is the direction of this plan that reasonable steps be taken to ensure an appropriate level of emergency preparedness and planning be maintained. The Administrative, Public Safety, Public Works and Community Services departments are directed to establish Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) Continuity of Operations Planning and a regular assessment of training levels and gaps.
Further it is the direction of this plan that a Multi Year Training and Exercise Program be established and maintained to ensure compliance with all Federal and State Requirements. This plan should also include a Citizen Based Training component.
Finally it is the direction of this plan that this document be reviewed, updated and refined following each year a municipal election is held and that they agree to its terms.  No absence of a signature shall deem this document invalid.

                                                                Mayor – City of Pacific

                                                                Council Position 1

                                                                Council Position 2

                                                                Council Position 3

                                                                Council Position 4

                                                                Council Position 5

                                                                Council Position 6

                                                                Council Position 7

                                                                City of Pacific Attorney

Filed by:  ________________________________________________ Date:______________
                                                                Clerk - City of Pacific

B.      The City of Pacific government shall, to the best of their ability, prepare for, respond to, recover from and mitigate against all disasters, natural or manmade consistent with available resources.
This will be done for the purpose of protecting lives, protecting property, preserving the environment and preserving our ability for economic recovery.

C.      The City of Pacific will work cooperatively with other governmental authorities and jurisdictions, the military, tribal governments, private businesses and organizations, volunteer organizations and individual citizens to achieve this mission.

D.      This CEMP shall be provided to the following organizations:

a.       Washington State Emergency Management Division
b.      King County Office of Emergency Management
c.       Pierce County Office of Emergency Management
d.      Valley Regional Fire Authority
e.      City of Auburn Office of Emergency Preparedness
E.       Additional Distribution is as follows:

Table of Contents
Section: Introduction
Cover, Title Page, Letter of Promulgation, Authority
Part One – Introduction, Mission and Authorizations, Record of Distributions                                                                      pg 3 - 4
Table of Contents                                                                                                                                                                                            pg 5 - 6
Part Two – Executive Summary, Plan Development                                                                                                                         pg 7

Section 1: Basic Plan
1.      General Policy Statement and Scope                                                                                                 Pg  8

Section 2: Situation and Assumptions
1.      Risk Assessment                                                                                                                                  Pg 9
2.      Assumptions                                                                                                                                        Pg 12
3.      Limitations                                                                                                                                          Pg 13
4.      Concept of Operations                                                                       
a.      Concept and Authority                                                                                                            Pg 14
b.      The Emergency Management Organization                                                                          Pg 14
c.       General Support Obligations                                                                                                  Pg 15
d.      Operation following Full or Partial Activation                                                                       Pg 17
e.      Emergency Operations Center                                                                                               Pg 18
f.        Activation Checklist                                                                                                                Pg 18
g.      Organizational Duties
                                                              i.      Mayor                                                                                                                         Pg 19
                                                            ii.      City Council                                                                                                                 Pg 20
                                                          iii.      Emergency Operations Manager                                                                               Pg 21
                                                           iv.      Deputy Emergency Operations Manager                                                                  Pg 22
                                                             v.      EOC Public Information Officer / Information Section                                              Pg 23
                                                           vi.      EOC Safety Officer                                                                                                      Pg 24
                                                         vii.      Finance / Administration Section Chief                                                                      Pg 25
                                                       viii.      Operations Section Chief                                                                                            Pg 26
                                                           ix.      Planning Section Chief                                                                                                Pg 27
                                                             x.      Logistics Section Chief                                                                                                            Pg 28

h.      Exercise and Testing Program                                                                                                            Pg 29
i.        Personnel Training Program                                                                                                  Pg 29
j.        Emergency Public Information / Warning                                                                             Pg 29
k.       Evacuation                                                                                                                              Pg 30
l.        Mass Care                                                                                                                               Pg 30
m.    Continuity of Government      (COG)                                                                                      Pg 30
n.      Continuity of Operations (COOP)                                                                                           Pg 31
o.      Communications                                                                                                                     Pg 31

Section 3: Time Phases of Emergency Management
A.      Preparedness                                                                                                                    Pg 32
B.      Increase Readiness / Warning                                                                                          Pg 33
C.      Response                                                                                                                           Pg 33
D.     Recovery Phase                                                                                                                 Pg 34
E.      Mitigation                                                                                                                         Pg 35

Section 4:  Activation Policies, Resources and Deactivation
A.      Administrative and Fiscal Procedures                                                                              Pg 36
B.      Resource Management. Procurement and Contracts                                                     Pg 37
C.      Emergency Procurement Policy                                                                                       Pg 37
D.     De-Escalation Procedures                                                                                                 Pg 38

Part Two – Executive Summary, Plan Development


                        This Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) results from the City of Pacific recognizing that a CEMP is needed to enhance the ability to plan for, respond to, recover from and mitigate for emergency and disaster situations.  This plan was prepared by local officials, working cooperatively with their counterparts in our region, looking at best practices across this country and is designed to work cooperatively with other local, regional, state and national plans.

                        In the past, government action was primarily reactive, either during or following the onset of an emergency or disaster situation.  Today, it is understood that it is critical for governments to think proactively and develop comprehensive plans that effectively deal with emergencies, not only during and following an event, but address all four phases of emergency management;  Planning, Response, Recovery and Mitigation.  These plans should be written in a standard format and should be “All Hazards” in scope.

            This CEMP includes an overview of the analysis of potential hazards that could affect our city and what possible impacts those hazards could have as or during an emergency event.  This CEMP should be considered a multi-year strategy and include continuous and ongoing efforts to meet management goals, objectives and planning.

Plan Development:

                        Dealing with disasters is a continuous and complex process.  This plan emphasizes the interrelationship of activities, functions and expertise necessary to deal with all events that may require the full or partial activation of the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP).  This plan is based on an “All Hazards” approach and addresses the planning, response, recovery and mitigation phases of Emergency Management.  It is concurrent with State and Regional plans and consistent with the National Response Framework (NRF) and requirements of the National Incident Management System (NIMS).
                This CEMP should not be viewed as a Static Document, but instead as a framework for regular review and refinement of emergency planning.  By its establishment, this CEMP requires a review and re-adoption by the Pacific City Council, including signature, each year following municipal elections.  Until re- adoption by Council, all provisions of prior CEMP remain intact and in force.

Section 1: Basic Plan

1.       General Policy Statement

It is the policy of the City of Pacific to provide the emergency planning and resources necessary to maximize population survival, preserve public and private property, limit environmental damage and restore economic viability in the City of Pacific following a natural or manmade disaster or a national security threat to the United States.  In order to plan for and effectively perform this mission, our general policy goals area as follows:
a.      Assist with community education and preparedness programs to develop citizen self-sufficiency.
b.      Promote staff training that exceeds minimum requirements of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and utilizes available resources for training at the state and federal levels.
c.       Build a capable disaster response capability using integrated emergency management concepts consistent with or exceeding our partners in the emergency management community including the City of Auburn and the Valley Regional Fire Authority.
d.      Develop and maintain a plan that will provide the framework for organizational activities during disaster operations, Continuity of Operations (COOP) and Continuity of Government (COG).
e.      Assist with and participate in State and Regional Disaster Planning for public and private organizations in King and Pierce Counties.
f.        Assist with and participate in additional regional plans that foster interagency cooperation as well as coordinated response with local, county, state and federal response efforts.
g.      Implement warning and emergency notification strategies that encompass current and future technologies.
h.      Facilitate mitigation efforts through hazard identification and risk assessments as well as suggestion of corrective actions.
i.        Maintain continuity of operations planning that provides the City of Pacific the framework to deliver essential services during extreme emergencies.
The City of Pacific CEMP provides guidance to the Emergency Management Organization for mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery operations.  This includes disaster and emergency responsibilities and procedures, training and community education activities.

The plan, including its annexes, checklist and supporting documents, provides for the coordination of operations before, during and after emergencies and disasters, as well as the best utilization of all resources within or provided to the City of Pacific.

This plan establishes a mutual understanding of authority, responsibilities and functions of local government and provides a basis for incorporating essential non-governmental agencies (NGO’s) and other organizations into the Emergency Management Organization.

The City of Pacific plan supports and is compatible with the Washington State, King and Pierce County plans as well as the National Response Framework.

Section 2: Situation and Assumptions

1.     Risk Assessment

Disasters and emergencies effecting Pacific have occurred in the past and will likely occur again in the future.  Through a process of performing a Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Analysis it has been determined that the City of Pacific is vulnerable to numerous manmade and natural hazards.  These hazards have been further identified and included in the City of Pacific Hazard Mitigation Plan annexed to this document.  The general hazards include: Extreme Weather including wind, rain, snow, ice, thunderstorms heat and cold, Flood, Landslide, civil disturbance, terrorism, explosion, structural collapse, major fire and energy or utility failure.  A brief Synopsis of those hazards includes:
·         Volcano – The City of Pacific is approximately 20 miles from Mt. Rainier, a 14,411 foot Stratovolcano. Although the last major eruption was in 1820, active steam vents and emissions are present regularly on or near the Summit.  An eruption of Mt. Rainier could cause a variety of hazards the citizens of Pacific, including:
o   Lahars – The highest direct risk would appear to be Lahars flowing down the Puyallup, Carbon and White River valleys.  A Lahar, similar to but ½ the size of the “Electron Flow” would take approximately 1.4 hours to reach the City of Pacific.  Recent construction of warehouses in Sumner has reduced some risk for the City of Pacific as it would tend to divert much of the pressure westward toward Commencement Bay.  However this would result in the cascading effect of the White River being blocked causing water to back up on the valley floor, eventually flooding portions of Pacific.  Additionally, a lahar traveling down the White River could reach Pacific in approximately 40 minutes, however much of its pressure would be defused by the Enumclaw Plateau and the Green River valley.
o   Other Eruption hazards include Tephra (Ash fall) of up to ¼” in a moderate to large eruption.

  • Earthquake - The majority of property and infrastructure in the City of Pacific is located on “Valley Soil” and vulnerable to liquefaction.  Areas of Pacific located on the West Hill of the valley are located on Rock and provide greater resistance to seismic activity.  The Hillside has a 4’-6’ layer of clay (and other soils) over bedrock and is subject to landslide.  There are also remains of a large peat bog at the extreme west end of sections of the valley.
o   Small (< 3.0) earthquakes occur on a regular basis in the area and seldom cause any impact.  However even small quakes that are shallow and in close proximity could cause damage.
o   Moderate Quakes (between 3.0 and 6.0) occur often during the year in Western Washington.  A moderate quake, located nearby could cause minor damage and disruption of utilities.  It could also cause shifting or other damage on older residential foundations that have not been secured or reinforced.
o   Large Earthquakes (6.0 +) tend to hit the northwest every 20-30 year.  The Nisqually Quake, a 6.8 struck on February 29, 2001 fitting this pattern, however this does not preclude the possibility of large quakes occurring at anytime.  Large quakes could result in building collapse or damage, sink holes, disruption of and possible damage to utilities including power, water, sewer, gas and communication.  Secondary damage could also occur including fire, landslide, and flooding.
o   Catastrophic Earthquakes ( 7.0+) including Subduction Zone quakes occur every 100 – 1100 years.  The last quake of this type occurred in January of 1700 and resulted in sections of our coastline sinking and a Tsunami being recorded as far away as Japan.  This type of quake would result in heavy damage throughout the region, mass casualties and long term disruption of all services.

  • Flooding – The City of Pacific is primarily flat and thus subject of many types of flooding.
o   Heavy Precipitation - can result in urban flooding causing closure of roads and local flooding of homes and property.  Secondary events caused by this same participation may result in landslides, especially along West Valley Highway.
o   River Flooding - can occur during any time of the year with limited notice.  The White River is controlled by Mud Mountain Dam, an USACE facility to control flooding downstream in Puyallup.  Typically, USACE will withhold water behind the dam during flooding of the Puyallup River to relieve pressure.  Following cresting, USACE will restore or ramp up evacuation of the reservoir depending on predictions of inflows above the dam.  No water is normally withheld behind the dam during normal operations.  Although in the past, “Bankfull Capacity” was over 10,000 CFS as a result of debris clogging sections, flooding can occur as low as 5100 CFS.On January 08, 2009, flows of 11,700 CFS combined with debris resulted in flooding of 101 homes and 10 businesses.

  • Severe Weather – The City of Pacific is subject to many types of severe weather events.
o   Wind – Western Washington is subject to occasional damaging wind events.  These events often result in loss of power, uprooted trees and landslides.
o   Snow – Western Washington, although temperate, is subject to heavy snows on occasion. In addition to transportation problems these events may also result in power failure, disruption of services and flooding as snows melt.
o   Ice – Although rare, Western Washington is subject to Ice storms where trees, utility lines and streets are covered with a layer of ice.  These events may result in disruption of power and communications, branches and lines breaking under the weight as well as ice falling from trees and utility lines.

  • Chemical / Hazardous Material events -   Pacific is vulnerable to many possibly chemical or hazardous material events. 
Among these are
o   Transportation based events

o   The City of Pacific has two railroad lines running North- South through Pacific. BNSF Railway uses track located on the eastern edge of town and annually carry over 3500 carloads of material that could result in a Haz-mat event.  It should be noted that these tracks are shared with daily commuter rail as well as scheduled passenger trains.
UP railroad operates on a slightly elevated track running North –South through the middle of town. Events on this track could also potentially block or limit east-west travel through town including emergency response.  Primary vulnerability would be concerning events with derailment, accident or rupture.

o   SR 167 runs North – South along the Western side of town.  This State Highway has an estimated 100,000 vehicle trips per day, over 5,000 of which are commercial vehicles.  It can be assumed that many of those trips may contain Hazardous materials. Primary vulnerability would be concerning events with accident or spills due to rupture.
o   Local Roads – Ellingson Ave is a route heavily used by commercial vehicles including those traveling to and from Boeing and Safeway Distribution.  Stewart Road also has multiple commercial vehicles trips supporting business both inside and adjacent to Pacific.

o   Fixed Location events
o   Boeing Auburn Plant is located ¼ mile to the north of the city limits.  Chemical treatment of small parts as well as other manufacturing could result in events.  In 1998 a mishap resulting in a chemical cloud resulted in partial evacuation of parts of Pacific.
o   Safeway Distribution Center located immediately north has a large refrigeration facility as well as refrigerated trucks.

2.     Assumptions:

Emergencies and disasters can occur in this City of Pacific at any time causing significant human suffering, injury and death.  These same events can also cause public and private property damage, environmental degradation, loss of essential services, and economic hardship to government, businesses, families and individuals.

The City of Pacific Hazard Mitigation Plan provides information on the potential risk of natural and manmade disasters throughout the City of Pacific.  The HMP identifies the threat, assesses the cities vulnerability to that threat and provides for the basis of this CEMP.

It is assumed that any of the noted situations could significantly create significant property damage and result in loss of life, panic and disruption of essential services to citizens of this city.  These situations may also have a significant financial, psychological or sociological impact on citizens of this community and the city government itself.

It is reasonable to assume that with impending storms, floods and certain acts of war there may be time for some degree of preparation prior to the event including public notification.  Earthquakes, terrorism and many other events might have an immediate or rapid onset with no time for preparation or notification.

In the event of a widespread disaster, there might be any significant assistance available from nearby communities, county state or federal resources for multiple days.  In this situation the city and its residents may need to rely upon available resources and those of private organizations and business for initial response operations.  It is recommended the City of Pacific look at use of prepositioned contracts for some emergency response needs such as debris removal, kitchen and temporary shelter and facilities.

The role of the individual citizen is of key importance in the response and recovery from emergency or disaster events.  The immediate availability of resources to respond to emergencies associated with a disaster will be limited and responses will need to be prioritized.  It is generally assumed that there will not be enough resources to respond to every need.  Therefore, each citizen should be responsible for preparing to meet their own emergency needs for up to 10 days.  This preparation should include having a plan, stocking supplies, receiving training and reducing hazards in the home and workplace.

            To support this specific assumption the City of Pacific will support and plan for the following:

§  Support efforts, along with the City of Auburn and the White River Valley Citizen Corps Council to provide Community Emergency Operations Team (CERT) and Map Your Neighborhood (MYN) classes for citizens.
§  Support or provide additional classes that support over all goals of emergency preparedness and response.
§  Include a citizen component in drills, training and exercises.

3.     Limitations

The Information and procedures included in this plan have been prepared utilizing the best information and planning assumptions available at the time. There is no guarantee implied by this plan that in major emergencies and disaster situations that a perfect response will be practical or possible.  As Pacific resources may be overwhelmed, essential systems may be dysfunctional.  The City can only endeavor to make every reasonable effort to respond based on the situation, information and resources available at the time.

The City of Pacific will endeavor to maintain or resume essential services as soon and as long as possible.  However, conditions may be of such a magnitude and severity that some or all services may be lost or curtailed.  The City of Pacific maybe unable to fulfill all emergency request under these conditions.  Priorities will be set using objectives developed consistent with the Incident Command System (ICS) Structure.

The City of Pacific will endeavor to make every reasonable effort to ensure an emergency management program is in place to prepare for, respond to, mitigate against and recover from disaster.  No guarantee of a perfect emergency management program or system is expressed or implied by this CEMP or any parts, references or annexes.

4.      Concept of Operations

a.     Concept and Authority  
The City of Pacific operates under a Council/ Strong Mayor form of government.  The Mayor leads the executive branch and all associated departments.  The members of the City Council are the legislative branch and are responsible for the adoption of policy and appropriation of needed resources.

In the absence of a full time Emergency Manager, the Chief of Police or his/her designee shall serve as the city’s Emergency Operations Manager (EOM).  The Public Works Director shall serve as the Deputy EOM.  A line of succession will be part of the City of Pacific Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP)

The day to day organizational structure of the City of Pacific departments will be maintained as much as practical during major emergencies.  Other public and private organizations including Auburn and Sumner School Districts and Community Organizations Active in Disaster (COAD) may, under mutual agreement, operate in coordination with this plan.

The City of Pacific’s Emergency Management Organization is hereby established to provide channels of communication for the efficient direction, control and coordination or liaison of emergency life saving operations between local governments, citizens, business and Non Governmental Organizations (NGO’s). This organization may include members but is not restricted to nor demands inclusion in any Emergency Operations Center organization.  The EOC shall operate consistent with the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and use appropriate ICS Structure. The Mayor of the City of Pacific is hereby directed to promulgate administrative rules and regulations to carry out the designated emergency management functions set forth herein.

b.     The Emergency Management Organization

The Emergency Management Organization (EMO) members or their designee may provide staff support, direction and expertise in development of this plan and all supporting documents.  The EMO will meet as necessary to insure that this CEMP is up to date and is submitted to appropriate governmental agencies for approval.   The EOM or designee shall serve as chair of the committee.  The committee is comprised of key personnel from city departments, members of professional and volunteer organizations having key roles in emergency preparedness, planning and response activities.  Members of the EOM as necessary during activation, coordinate activities in their respective disciplines and/or areas of expertise or responsibility during emergencies or disasters.  The EMO may also assume the roles and duties of the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) as needed and in compliance with all other laws and regulations.

The Emergency Management Organization shall consist of the following members:
Police Chief                                               Public Works Director
Police Command Staff member               Building Official
City Finance Director                                    Valley Regional Fire Authority representative
City Planner                                              Mayor
Representatives of Business and Citizens as deemed appropriate by Committee

Additional sub-committees as deemed necessary by the EMO and Chair.  These subcommittees may include additional individuals from outside organizations as appropriate.  A member of the EMO will chair sub committees.

c.      General Support Operations

I.    The City of Pacific will prepare and use personnel, resources, and facilities for dealing with any emergency or disaster that may occur. Disasters and emergencies by their very nature may disrupt existing systems and the capability of the City of Pacific to respond to protect life, public health, and public property. Therefore citizens are encouraged to be self-sufficient for at least seven (1) days should an emergency or disaster occur.
II.   The Mayor, through the Emergency Management Organization, is responsible for the direction and control of the organization, administration and operation of the emergency management program and the emergency operations center for the City of Pacific.
III.  To facilitate coordination among departments, each department will appoint a liaison and alternates to work on Emergency planning, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery issues.  Each department will make staff available, at the request of the Mayor or the EOC manager, to assist in emergency operations in the EOC. This will include, but not limited to, appropriate training for such activities as public information support, documentation, operations and damage assessments.
Each department director will ensure that internal operations procedures are developed. At a minimum, those procedures will address:
·         Continuity of operations, continuation of essential services, mission essential personnel, and lines of succession (Continuity of Operations Plan [COOP] included as an annex .
·         Emergency actions for mission-essential personnel for on and off duty hours of operation.
·         Primary and alternate locations for department operations.
·         Procedures for conducting emergency assessments of facility, operational status, resource status and needs and employee accountability.
·         Procedures for emergency internal communications.
·         Personnel for emergency operations training and EOC staffing.
·         Procedures for emergency record keeping for operations and fiscal impacts.
IV. An overarching Continuity of Government (COG) Plan, in development at the Executive level, addresses the emergency roles of elected officials, and all City of Pacific employees.
V.   The City of Pacific will coordinate and support other regional political jurisdictions in emergency and disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery efforts, as resources allow.
VI. Federal assistance may be available for disaster response and recovery operations under the provisions of the National Response Plan (NRP) and Public Law 93.288, when certain criteria are met.
VII. Mutual aid and interlocal agreements will be implemented as needed for emergency response and recovery operations.
VIII. Nondiscrimination:
In the exercise of its powers or in the performance of its duties, the city shall ensure that no person is discriminated against because of race, creed, color, sex, age, handicap or any other basis not reasonably related to the accomplishment of a legitimate governmental purpose, and after consideration of veterans' preference, shall take whatever affirmative action necessary to accomplish this purpose as defined in the State and Federal constitutions and applicable court interpretations.

d.     Operation following full or partial activation

The City of Pacific Emergency Operations Plan adopts and supports the National Incident Management System (NIMS} In Its entirety using the Incident Command System principles as mandated In RCW 38.52.070. This plan also recognizes and promotes the use of Unified and Area Command as appropriate for the size and type of event.  This plan further recognizes the role of on scene or field command post staffed by Incident Command organizations and the EOC supporting ICP’s.
The activation of this plan may be for an Intense, localized event or a widespread regional or catastrophic event The CEMP Is Intended to be activated separately or in conjunction with Regional, County, State Plans and the National Response Framework.
Partial activations may also be appropriate to monitor events or to assist in non emergency events such as parades, festivals or protest The CEMP may be activated by the Emergency Operations Manager or at the request of the Mayor or Chief Elected Official or when the level of operations requires It.
Following the activation of this plan, the City of Pacific Emergency Operations Manager will assume all duties and responsibilities needed to secure the safety and security of the citizens of Pacific as outlined in this plan. All City of Pacific elected officials will cooperate with the Emergency Operations Manager and will assist only as authorized by EOM or elsewhere in this plan.
In the event of activation of regional, county or state emergency operations centers, the Emergency Operations Manager will participate as outlined In those plans.
When a major emergency or disaster occurs, It Is anticipated that the city departments and other responding organizations will organize their areas of responsibilities into manageable units, assess damages, and determine needs. If agency resources cannot meet the needs created by the disaster, additional assistance may be requested through existing mutual aid or through King County Emergency Operations Center.
In the event of a Declaration of Emergency the deployment of resources will normally be coordinated through the Emergency Operations center unless otherwise specified under ICS.
Resources to be utilized to support city operations may be placed at staging areas until specific assignments can be made.
In the event a situation is, or will become, beyond the capabilities of the resources of the City of
Pacific and those provided through mutual aid, the Mayor or designee may request assistance from the King County Executive through the King County EOC.

e.     Emergency Operation Center

The Emergency Operations Center Shall be located upstairs at the Department of Public 5afety Building located at 133 3rd Ave SE. unless otherwise designated by the EOM.

f.       Activation Checklist

When a major emergency or disaster occurs In addition to specific checklist as per support annexes, personnel shall use the following general checklist as a basis for managing emergency operations:

a.      Report to the pre-determined area of the Emergency Operations center if appropriate.

b.      Account for personnel appropriate under your authority.

c.       Assess damages to facilities and resources.

d.      Assess personnel and resources available.

e.      Assess problems and needs.

f.        Report situation, damages and capabilities to the Emergency Operations Manager.

g.      Carry out appropriate responsibilities and assigned tasks.

h.      Continue assessment of departmental resources, needs and actions.

i.        Continue reports to the Emergency Operations Manager regarding actions, problems,
needs, damages, etc.

j.        Keep detailed and accurate records, document actions, costs, situations, etc.

k.       Use, as appropriate Standard ICS Forms including all personnel to use ISC 214

g.     Organizational Duties

The following are specific organizational duties during and following an activation of the CEMP.  In addition Specific Checklist for these positions is provided for in CEMP Annexes.

REPORTS TO:  Citizens
SUPERVISES:  EOC Manager and indirectly all EOC positions

The Mayor, as Chief Elected official is responsible to proclaim and/or ratify a local emergency, approve emergency orders, and provide a point of contact for public input regarding the emergency and response efforts.  Specific duties include:

·         Ensures that the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan is adhered to.
·         Proclaim and/or ratify a local emergency. (Within 24 hours this order should be confirmed by the City Council. In the event a majority of the council is unavailable or unable to be present, the Mayor may request such confirmation from the Council Members Present.).
·         Establish executive-level policies for emergency management.
·         Ensures that the EOC Manager has clear policy direction.
·         Obtains briefings from the EOC Manager and provide information to the public and media.
·         Support a multi-agency disaster response.
·         Accompany VIPs and government officials on tours of the emergency/disaster.
·         Issue notice of evacuation when necessary.

City Council
REPORTS TO:  Citizens
SUPERVISES:  No Direct Supervisory role

·         Maintains continuity of government as appropriate.

·         Provides visible leadership to the community as appropriate.

·         Confirms special emergency orders and declarations.

·         Confirms policy direction through the Mayor, Emergency Operations Manager and the Emergency  Management Organization.   Note: Council may be directed at times of Emergency to assemble at the EOC or other location as directed by the Emergency Operations Manager.

·         Appropriate funds as necessary to provide for emergency preparedness, mitigation response and recovery activities to be carried out within the city.

·         May supplement regular city employees in their recovery efforts as needed.

Emergency Operations Manager

·         Deputy EOC Manager
·         Public Information Section
·         Safety Officer
·         Liaison Officer
·         Operations Section Chief
·         Logistics Section Chief
·         Planning Section Chief
·         Finance/Admin Section Chief

The EOC Manager, a member of the Command Staff /Management Section, facilitates the overall functioning of the EOC, coordinates with other emergency management planning levels and agencies, and serves as an advisor to the Policy Group.  Specific duties include:

·         Immediately notify the Mayor of significant emergency situations that could affect the jurisdiction.

·         When directed by the Mayor or when circumstances dictate, notify all tasked organizations, inform them of the situation, and direct them to take the actions appropriate for the situation (report to EOC, scene of the emergency, stand by, etc.) in accordance with their organization's SOP.

·         Coordinates dissemination of emergency warning information through available city resources

·         The EOC Manager has overall management responsibility for the coordination between emergency response and supporting agencies in the EOC. In conjunction with Management Section, set priorities for response efforts in the affected area.

·         Establish the appropriate staffing level for the EOC and continuously monitor organizational effectiveness to ensure that appropriate modifications occur as required.

·         Ensure that inter-agency coordination is accomplished effectively within the EOC.

·         Direct, in consultation with the EOC Public Information Officer, appropriate emergency public information actions using the best methods of dissemination. Approve the issuance of press releases, and other public information materials as required.

·         Liaise with Elected Officials.

·         Ensure risk management principles and procedures are applied for all activities.
Deputy Emergency Operations Manager


The EOC Assistant Manager, a member of the Command Staff / Management Section, assist with the overall functioning of the EOC, coordinates with other emergency management planning levels and agencies, and serves as an advisor to the EOC Manager.  Specific duties include:

·         Assume the role of EOC Manager in their absence. See EOC Manager Checklist for          responsibilities.

·         Undertake special assignments at the request of the Manager.

·         Ensure the efficient and effective flow of information within the EOC.

·         Ensure resource requests are prioritized and tracked.

·         Support EOC management by communicating policy direction and action priorities to all staff.

·         Monitor the health and welfare of EOC staff. Mediate and resolve any personnel conflicts.

·         Facilitate briefings and debriefings at shift changes.

·         Coordinate internal functions of EOC for effective operational capability.

EOC Public Information Officer/EOC Public Information Section

SUPERVISES: (If Appropriate)
·         Rumor Control Unit Leader.
·         Public Inquiries Unit Leader.
·         Media Inquiries Unit Leader.
·         Information and Instruction Unit Leader.

The Public Information Officer (PIO), a member of the Command Staff / Management Section, is responsible for the formulation and release of information about the incident to the public, news media, and other appropriate agencies or organizations. The PIO's duties are generally defined as:

·         Serve as the dissemination point for all county media releases.

·         Coordinate as necessary with other jurisdictions and Incident Commanders in the field to ensure that the public within the affected area receives complete, accurate, timely, and consistent information about lifesaving procedures, health preservation instructions, emergency status, and other information on relief programs and services.

·         Review and coordinate all related information releases.

·         Maintain a relationship with the media representatives and hold periodic press conferences as required.

·         If the emergency requires response from other jurisdictions, districts, or agencies, establishing a Media Information Center to consolidate information gathering and dissemination.

·         Coordinate all media and VIP visits to the EOC.

·         The Public Information Officer function may, as conditions and or activation levels require, expand into a branch structure consisting of divisions, groups, and units.

EOC Safety Officer


The Safety Officer, a member of the Command Staff / Management Section, is responsible for monitoring and assessing hazardous and unsafe situations in the EOC and support facilities and for developing measures for assuring personal safety. The Safety Officer will correct unsafe situations or conditions through the regular line of authority, although the Officer may exercise emergency authority, to stop or prevent unsafe acts when immediate action is required. Specific duties include:

·         Ensure that all facilities used in support of emergency response have safe operating conditions.

·         Monitor EOC and support facilities to ensure that they are conducted in a safe manner.

·         Stop or modify all unsafe operations.

·         Work with on-scene and/or specialized safety personnel to ensure safe working conditions.

·         Maintains awareness of active and developing situations and prepares a safety message for each EOC Action Plan.

·         Develop EOC Safety and Evacuation Plan.

·         Ensures that good risk management practices are applied throughout the response organization, and that every function contributes to the management of risk.

·         Protects the interests of all EOC participants, agencies, and organizations by ensuring due diligence in information collection, decision-making, and implementation.

·         Monitors situations for risk exposures and ascertains probabilities and potential consequences of future events.

·         Provides advice on safety issues and has the authority to halt or modify any and all unsafe operations within or outside the scope of the EOC Action Plan, notifying the EOC Manager of actions taken. (It should be noted while the Safety Officer has responsibility for safety; it is recommended that a safety specialist be appointed who is familiar with all aspects of safety and relevant legislation.)
·         Develop and maintain an accountability plan for all emergency workers.

Finance/Administration Section Chief

Reports To:  EOC Manager.
Supervises:  Finance Branch Director, Administration Branch Director

The Finance/Administration Section Chief, a member of the General Staff, is responsible for providing finance and Administration services in support of the incident. Participates in development and implementation of the Incident Action Plan and activates and supervises the branches and units within the Finance/Admininistration Section.  Specific duties of the Finance/Administration Section Chief include:

·         Within established policies and procedures, provide fiscal procedures to support emergency measures at all levels in government and to preserve vital community records in the event of disaster or major emergency. Includes documenting work performed and associated costs.

·         Reviews contracts for emergency work and procurement.

·         Assists in Identifying sources of disaster funds if departmental budgets are exceeded.

·         Assists other departments with compilation of disaster related financial information.

Operations Section Chief

Public Works Branch Director
Fire Services Branch Director
Emergency Medical Services Branch Director
Public Health Services Branch Director
Law Enforcement Services Branch Director

The Operations Section Chief, a member of the General Staff, is responsible for the management of all operations directly applicable to the primary mission. The Operations Chief activates and supervises organizational elements in accordance with the EOC Action Plan and directs its execution. The Operations Chief also requests or releases resources, makes expedient changes to the EOC Action Plan as necessary, and reports such to the EOC Manager and General Staff. Specific duties of the Operations Chief include:

·         Ensure that the Operations section function is carried out including the coordination of response for Law Enforcement, Fire/Rescue, Parks, Medical, Public Works, and Coroner Units.
·         Establish and maintain staging areas for incoming resources; work in coordination with the Logistics Section.
·         Develop and ensure that the EOC Action Plan’s operational objectives are carried out.
·         Establish the appropriate level of organization within the section and continuously monitor the effectiveness of that organization; make changes as required.
·         Exercise overall responsibility for the coordination of branch/unit activities within the section.
·         Report to the EOC Manager on all matters pertaining to section activities.
·         Within established policies and procedures, assume responsibility for executing the "approved" EOC response/coordination plan.
·         Ensures that the operations function is carried out including the coordination of response for all operational functions assigned to the EOC.
·         Ensures that operational objectives and assignments identified in the EOC action plan are carried out effectively.

Planning Section Chief

Reports To: EOC Manager
Situation Analysis Branch Director
Documentation Branch Director
Advance Planning Branch Director
Resource Status Unit Leader
Technical Services Unit Leader
The Planning Section Chief, a member of the General Staff, is responsible for the collection, evaluation, dissemination and use of information about the development of the emergency, and status of resources. Information is needed to: understand the current situation; predict probable course of incident events; prepare alternative strategies, and control operations for the incident. To do this, the following responsibilities must be met:
·         Ensure that the Planning function is performed consistent with the EOC Guidelines including:
-          Collecting, analyzing, and displaying situation information.
-          Preparing periodic situation reports.
-          Development and dissemination of the EOC Action Plan.

·         Providing technical support services to the various organizational elements within the EOC.

·         Establish the appropriate level of organization within the section, and continuously monitor the effectiveness of that organization; make changes as required.

·         Report to the EOC Manager on all matters pertaining to section activities.

·         Prepare work objectives for section staff and make staff assignments.

·         Meet with other activated Section Chiefs; review major incident reports and additional field operational information that may pertain to or affect section operations.

·         Obtain and review major incident reports and other reports from adjacent areas that have arrived at the EOC.

·         Ensure the Situation Status Unit Leader collect and display significant disaster events.

·         Think ahead and anticipate situations and problems before they occur; based on the existing and forecast situation determine future Planning section needs.

·         Request additional resources through the appropriate unit in the Logistics section, as needed.

Logistics Section Chief

Reports To:  EOC Manager.
Logistics Services Branch Director.
Logistics Support Branch Director.
The Logistics Section Chief, a member of the General Staff, is responsible for providing facilities, services, and material in support of the incident. Participates in development and implementation of the Incident Action Plan and activates and supervises the branches and units within the Logistics Section. Specific duties of the Operations Chief include:

·         Ensure the logistics function is carried out consistent with the EOC Guidebook, including:
-        Managing and tracking resources.
-        Managing all radio, data, and telephone needs for the EOC.
-        Coordinating transportation needs and issues.
-        Managing personnel issues and registering volunteers as Disaster Services Workers.
-        Obtaining all materials, equipment, and supplies to support emergency operations.
-        Coordinating management of utilities used during disaster response and recovery.
-        Coordinating establishment of a Base Area and management of a Base Area Manager.

·         Establish the appropriate level of organization within the section and continuously monitor the effectiveness of that organization; make changes as required.

·         Exercise overall responsibility for the coordination of branch/unit activities within the section.

·         Coordinate the provision of logistical support for the EOC.

·         Report to the EOC Manager on all matters pertaining to section activities.

·         Within established policies and procedures, provide overall resource support to include supplies, communications, facilities, equipment and personnel to all activities, and facilities making up the emergency operations system.

h.     Exercise and Testing Program

a.      The City of Pacific will regularly test Its preparedness through disaster exercises, drills and discussions.

b.      These activities are to be held in accordance with its multi-year training and exercise program.

c.       Following each activity, an after action plan shall be created along with corrective action planning.

d.      A record of such activities will be Included as part of this plan and IAP's and CAP's will be kept as
supplements to this plan.

i.       Personnel Training Program

a.      It shall be a priority for the City of Pacific to promote the training and disaster education of all staff.  This may include training available through FEMA and Washington state both classroom and online.

b.      At minimum the City of Pacific shall remain compliant with requirements of the National Incident Management System (NIMS)

j.       Emergency Public Information / Warning

a.       Public information will be relayed to the community via local media through the designated Public
Information Officer.

b.      The City of Pacific will adopt and promote Public Information /Public Warning by use of existing city resources, and central Puget Sound Emergency Broadcast System.  Among these existing resources are:
                                                                     i.            Warning Siren located at the Pacific Public Safety Building, 133 3rd Ave SE
                                                                   ii.            KOMO News Radio is designated as the City of Pacific official radio station for emergency warning. (Resolution # 891 Oct -2009) KOMO news radio is 1000 AM / 97.7 FM.  Direct Producer Phone Number is 206 441-0165.
                                                                  iii.            The City of Pacific will use SOUNDBITE for an auto dialer program.
                                                                 iv.            The City will use “Twitter” and/or other social media  for updates.

c.       The City of Pacific will support efforts to improve Public Information / Public Warning as new technologies / opportunities arise.

k.     Evacuation

a.      The City of Pacific will conduct appropriate identifying of evacuation routes.

b.      The City of Pacific will not normally provide for transportation of citizens or supplies other than as described In the COOP Planning.

    1. The City of Pacific will work in cooperation with other jurisdictions, agencies and NGO's to help facilitate evacuation and sheltering.  This is for the purpose of coordination of resources.
    2. The City of Pacific shall develop an evacuation plan and attach same as an annex to this document.

l.       Mass Care

a.      The City of Pacific will work in cooperation with other jurisdictions, agencies and NGO's to help facilitate mass care and sheltering.  This is for the purpose of coordination of resources.

b.      The City of Pacific shall develop a Mass Care plan and attach same as an annex to this document.

m.  Continuity of Government

a.      The City of Pacific, in accordance with PMC 2.76.065 a line of succession is created (Ord 1621 – Sept. 14. 2005).

b.      In the event that its leadership is incapacitated, RCW 42.14 provides for filling of vacancies for elected officials in the City of Pacific.

n.     Continuity of Operations

a.      The City of Pacific has operations that must be performed, or rapidly and efficiently
resumed, following an emergency. While the Impact of an emergency cannot be predicted,
planning for operations under such conditions can mitigate the Impact of the emergency
on our people, our facilities and our mission.

b.      The City of Pacific has prepared and attached as an Annex to the CEMP a Continuity of Operation Plan (COOP) to facilitate the restoration of services.

o.     Communications

The City of Pacific shall coordinate and develop a communication plan and attach as an annex to the CEMP

SECTION 3: Time Phases of Emergency Management
In order to minimize the effects of a disaster, provide for emergency response capabilities and to facilitate recovery efforts, the various elements of the Pacific Emergency Management Organization and city departments shall endeavor to provide services in areas of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery from disasters to the best of their ability during all operational time phases.

A.    Preparedness

a.      Develop and maintain the City of Pacific Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP).

b.      Review hazard and risk analysis and develop capabilities and resources to enhance ability to
c.       respond to and recover from disaster situations.

d.      Develop appropriate contingency plans and standard operating procedures in support of the
e.      CEMP.

f.        Coordinate with other local, county, state and federal agencies to assure cohesive working
g.      relationships and compatible emergency plans.

h.      Coordinate with volunteer organizations to assure cohesive working relationships and identify gaps.

i.        Conduct training and other activities to protect city personnel, equipment, supplies, services and properties as appropriate.

j.        Conduct training activities to enhance response capabilities. This training is to include appropriate ICS classes to meet and exceed NIMS requirements.

k.       Conduct public education to enhance citizen self sufficiency.

B.    Increased Readiness! Warning Phase

a.      Make appropriate notification and Initiate actions to place emergency plans in effect.

b.      Activate and staff the Emergency Operations Center as appropriate.

c.       Disseminate emergency warning and information as appropriate.

C.     Response

a.      Initiate actions necessary to preserve life, property, economy and environment utilizing available resources.

b.      Carry out preliminary damage assessment and evaluate overall situation.

c.       Coordinate response and support functions with outside agencies and volunteer organizations.

d.      Coordinate operations, logistics and planning functions.

e.      Compile event status Information and report to appropriate agencies.

f.        Prepare and maintain detailed documentation of events and activities.

g.      Provide public information and warning as appropriate.

D.    Recovery Phase

a.      Compile damage assessment and fiscal records as requested by the EOC manager in response to state and federal emergency proclamation evaluation and determination.

b.      Prioritize recovery projects and assign functions accordingly.

c.       Coordinate recovery efforts and logistical needs with supporting agendas and organizations.

d.      Prepare or compile documentation of event, including event logs (ICS 214’s), cost analysis and estimate recovery cost.

e.      Facilitate the assistance of disaster assistance centers to assist private business and citizens with Individual recovery.

f.        Facilitate the development of and / or activation of a long term recovery board to oversee local assistance needs.

g.      Assess special community needs and provide information and assistance where appropriate.

h.      Incorporate long range plans into recovery and restoration activities.

E.     Mitigation

Mitigation strategies are based on the hazards listed in the City of Pacific Hazard
Mitigation plan and data gathered following disaster dec1arations, as well as input from various agencies, the private sector and the public. In order to facilitate the mitigation of hazards, the Mayor
of the City of Pacific or his designee shall:

a.      Revue and propose possible projects that will reduce the overall threat to Citizens, Business, Infrastructure and public and private properties in the City of Pacific.

b.      Work with State and Federal agencies and appropriate stakeholders to provide for  and fund mitigation activities.

c.       Partner with King County and other local agencies on regional mitigation plans and programs. 

A.    Administrative and Fiscal Procedures
1.      It is the policy of the City of Pacific that each city department will assign personnel to be responsible for documentation of disaster activities and costs and to utilize effective administration methods to keep accurate detailed records distinguishing disaster operational activities and expenditures from day to day activities and expenditures. All records will be transmitted to a designated person as Identified by the Emergency Operations Manager or designee.  Appropriate ICS Forms shall be used.
2.      Documentation of assets deployed, donated or otherwise used. This includes documentation of
Volunteers, hours worked and how they were used.

3.      During emergency operations, non-essential administration activities may be suspended.
Personnel not assigned to duties may be assigned to other departments In order to provide
support services.

4.      The City of Pacific will incur disaster expenses and may draw from from currently appropriated local funds in accordance with Chapter 38.52.070 RCW and Chapter 35A.33.080-100 RCW.  
The Mayor and City Council will be responsible for identifying other sources of funds to meet disaster related expenses if departmental budgets are exceeded.

5.      Normal procedures for expenditures and payment processing may be modified to accommodate
the circumstances associated with the disaster.

6.      The City of Pacific will submit reports required by both state and federal agencies as provided by
All County, State and Federal Plans. The Emergency Manager will designate authority to a staff or team member to act a records officer and all reports and paperwork will be funneled through this person.

7.      It will be the responsibility of the Emergency Operations Manager or designee to coordinate the preparation of all required reports and ensure that they are delivered to the appropriate agencies.

8.      A streamlined plan review and permit process may be Instituted within the building department, In order to facilitate repair and restoration activities. 

9.      Repair and restoration of damaged facilities may require environmental assessments and
appropriate permits prior to final project approval, requiring compliance with the State
Environmental Policy Act, Forest Practices Act, Shoreline Management Act, and Flood Control Act.

10.  No services or assistance will be denied on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, economic status, age or disability.

11.  Local activities pursuant to the Federal/State Agreement for major disaster recovery will be
carried out in accordance with RCW 49.60 - Laws Against Discrimination and 44 CFR section 205.16
Nondiscrimination. Federal disaster assistance is conditional upon compliance with these codes.

12.  Volunteer emergency workers used during emergencies and disaster operations shall be
registered using procedures established by Chapter 118.04 WAC Emergency Worker Standards.

B.   Resource management, procurement and contracts:

The Emergency Manager or designee, following a Declaration of Emergency, has the authority to commandeer the services and equipment of citizens as necessary in response to a disaster. Those citizens are entitled to all privileges, benefits and immunities provide for emergency workers under state and federal Emergency Management Regulations, Chapter 38.52.110 RCW.

C.     Emergency procurement Policy
1.       The Emergency Manager or designee is authorized to contract with any person, firm, corporation or entity to provide construction work on an agreed upon cost basis during emergency or disaster response operations, Chapter 38.52.390 RCW. However It Is recognized that reimbursement may be limited to federal guidelines and requirements.

2.       It is the Policy of the City of Pacific that all departments prepare and maintain an updated list of its personnel, facilities and equipment resources as part of their Standard Operating Procedures.
3.       Any or all of these resources may be called upon during disaster and emergency situations.

4.       Additional governmental resources may be called upon for assistance through the use of existing mutual aid agreements, King County Emergency Management and Washington State Division of Emergency Management.

5.       Prepositioned Contracts may be negotiated for activation by the City of Pacific. These contracts should be reviewed regularly as part of the revision and reacceptance of this document.

D.    De-escalation Procedures
1.      At the conclusion of emergency operations the EOC shall stand down. At this point all
Emergency powers are rescinded and normal authority Is restored.

2.      The City of Pacific shall conduct a Debriefing as part of the After Action Review / Improvement Plan (AAR/IP) process.  An AAR/IP document will be produced and filed as appropriate with Local. State and Federal authorities.

3.      This document shall also be provided to the City Council and Mayor along with recommendations for Improvement.

The following is a list of documents that have been attached as annexes to the City of Pacific Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan.  Although they may also act as a standalone plan or document or may additionally be an annex of a County or State document, they are fully empowered and authorized by inclusion in this plan.

A.      Declaration of Emergency
B.      List of ICS Forms and Use
C.      ICS Position Checklist ( Policy, Command Staff / Management, General Staff)
D.     Multi Year Training and Exercise Program (2010)
E.      Continuity of Operations Plan ( in Review)
F.       Hazard Mitigation Plan (in Review)
G.     Evacuation Plan  ( in progress)
H.     Mass Care and Sheltering Plan (in progress)
I.        AAR/IP Plans
1.      Sound Shake 08 Exercise        March 05, 2008
2.      White River Flooding              January 08, 2009